Sunday, June 30, 2013

Sony Xperia Z Ultra : Phablet Re-Invented

The Xperia Z Ultra's huge 6.44in screen blurs the line between a smartphone and a tablet (aka phablet).

Sony's new Xperia Z Ultra is yet another Android phone that blurs the line between a smartphone and a tablet. The company claims the 6.4in smartphone is the world's slimmest with a full HD display, measuring just 6.5mm thick. 

At almost 180mm tall and over 92mm wide, the Xperia Z Ultra will immediately become one of the largest devices on the market. Its size is comparable to Samsung's Galaxy Mega 6.3, so it's much larger than the Samsung Galaxy Note II, and even the 6.1inHuawei Ascend Mate. Take a look at The top 10 best Android tablets of 2013 too.

The Xperia Z Ultra appears to follow a similar design to Sony's Xperia Z smartphone and the Xperia Tablet Z. It's a long rectangle shape with flat sides, square corners and a sheet of tempered glass on both the front and the back. All that extra size means the Xperia Z Ultra weighs 212g, which is heavier than the Galaxy Mega 6.3.

The Xperia Z Ultra is completely waterproof, not just water resistant.
Perhaps the best design feature of the Xperia Z Ultra is the fact that it is waterproof, not just water resistant. The phone will handle water and dust to IP55 and IP58 standards, which is an upgrade over Sony's previous water resistant devices. See: What's the best phone you can buy in 2013?

The Xperia Z Ultra is a top end phone that is likely to retail for a top end price, so it's specifications are certainly impressive, at least on paper. It has a 6.4in, full HD "Triluminos" display which is Sony's fancy marketing term for a new technology that claims to display a wider palette of colours.
The phone is powered by Qualcomm's new 2.2GHz, quad-core Snapdragon 800 processor, has 2GB of RAM, and includes 16GB of internal memory. A microSD card slot handles extra storage, while the phone is also 4G capable and will therefore work on all Australian networks.
Sony says the Xperia Z Ultra's handwriting recognition feature will work with any regular pencil or pen.
Sony says the Xperia Z Ultra's handwriting recognition feature will work with any regular pencil or pen.
Like Samsung's Galaxy Note II, the Xperia Z Ultra comes with a stylus that allows users to write and sketch on the screen. However, Sony says the handwriting recognition feature will work with any regular pencil or pen, provided the tip diameter is over 1mm.
The Xperia Z Ultra comes with an 8-megapixel rear facing camera with Sony's Exmor RS sensor but the company has surprisingly omitted an LED flash. The phone's waterproof capabilities means you can film full HD videos underwater, and there's also HDR for both still photos and videos, along with a front-facing 2-megapixel camera that handles video calls.
Other features include a large 3050mAh battery and NFC-connectivity, though the battery is not removable.
The Xperia Z Ultra will be available in black, white, and purple colour variants.
The Xperia Z Ultra will be available in black, white, and purple colour variants.
The Xperia Z Ultra comes with Google's latest Android 4.2 Jelly Bean software but is once again skinned with Sony's own UI. The Battery Stamina mode feature seen on the Xperia Z is also present here. It prevents applications from running when the screen is locked, therefore saving power.
The Xperia Z Ultra will be available in black, white, and purple colour variants. Sony says the phone will launch globally from Q3 2013.

What do you think? Please, leave your comments below.

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Check Out: Samsung Galaxy S4 vs htc One Smartphone

How to Create Adsense account?- Easy Way

In this post, we will see how you can create adsense account for your Website. There are many Adsense alternatives, but no matter what network you try Adsense is certainly the best. Though, if you are good with marketing, you can look into Affiliate marketing and my post on Affiliate or Adsense will give you my personal insight.

I remember when I started Blogging, Adsense was something an alien word for me. While signing up for Adsense, I had very less idea about it, which I learned by myself online. For beginners, who are not aware of Adsense:  It’s  an advertisement program for publisher started by Google. They place contextual ads on your blog and you will get paid when someone clicks on ads.
Here I’m compiling a basic guide for beginners who are not sure of, how to apply for  Adsense.
Create Adsense account
There are few requirements which you need to follow before you can apply for Adsense. You need to have a website. You should be above 18+, else apply using your parents name.

Steps to create Adsense account:

Adsense has changed the account approval process lately and here is new adsense account approval process:
  • Sign up for Adsense
  • Add Adsense ads into your Blog
  • Your account will be reviewed and rejected.
  • Though new adsense account approval process is quite lengthy and now it’s 2 way adsense account approval process, but it will help us to maintain the quality of adsense. Also before applying for adsense make sure your website is following adsense policies.

I believe, by now you have done your research on the above and here is how  you can sign up for Adsense.

Step by Step guide to Create Adsense account

Website details:

Add your website details, language and put a tick mark on first two box which says

  • I will not place ads on sites that include incentives to click on ads.
  • I will not place ads on sites that include pornographic content.
In Website URL, it should be your blog address and make sure to add it without http://

Adsense contact information:

This is most important part and I remember making couple of mistakes while signing up. Most important is Payee name. Make sure to use the same name under which you have a bank account. As Adsense will be sending you a check under that name. If you make a mistake here, changing payee name of your account would be difficult.

Rest add your contact information and fill other details.

Accept Adsense policies:

Read Adsense policies and put a tick mark in front of all three boxes.
Once done click on Submit and on the next page, you can review your details. Make sure that all the details are accurate and up to date.

Signing up Email:

You can use your current Email address to sign up or you can create a new Gmail id for Adsense. For fast approval, I would suggest you to sign up using your Google apps address. i.e

In my case, While I tried signing up using generic @gmail address, I was rejected 4 times, but later on when I applied using domain Email address, it worked and I got Instant adsense approval.

Submit Adsense Tax Information

Once you have signed up for Adsense, you need to add adsense codes into your blog. Adsense team will review your application again after adding the ad codes, and it will activate and will send you Adsense Pin. Which takes 1-2 months depending upon geographical position.
So, after every thing is set up, in order to get paid from Adsense, you need to fill two information:
  • Please submit your Tax information
  • Please Enter your Pin
You will also need to submit Tax form, depending how you are entitled to do business.

Indian Publisher Tax Info Adsense
Similarly, once you receive the Pin, add it into your Adsense account and from the next month payment cycle, you will start getting paid. Minimum Payout for Adsense is $100.

I hope this guide will help you to create Adsense account
Leave your comments below.

Check Out: Top 10 Abandoned Places On The Earth

Tuesday, June 18, 2013

Top 10 Richest People In The World

Top 10 Richest People In The World

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Here is the list of the richest people in the world, 2013 by Forbes.

1. Carlos Slim Helú

Net Worth: $73 billion

This is the fourth year; Carlos Slim Helú has been entitled with the ‘Richest Man’ title.

Carlos is a Mexican business tycoon. Born in January 28, 1940, Carlos was taught business basics by his father. At the age of 17, he started working for his father’s company and was earning 200 pesos a week.

Today, Carlos is the telecom giant of Mexico and also owns a remarkable number of companies. Some of his conglomerate companies are Grupo Carso, SA de CV, etc. His América Móvil was the largest mobile-phone carrier in 2010. He is the Chairman and CEO of Telmex and América Móvil.

 2. Bill Gates

Net Worth: $67 billion

Bill Gates is the most active name in the ‘Richest People’ list. Even after giving away a considerable amount to ‘Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’, he is standing tall in the second rank of this list.

His name needs no introduction. He topped this list constantly from 1995 to 2009. It was only in 2008 that he was ranked as third.

He is the current Chairman of Microsoft and he donates a major portion of his wealth to his charitable trust, ‘Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’.

3. Amancio Ortega

Net Worth: $ 57 billion

In 2012, Ortega’s net worth was $37.5 billion and this year, he made it to $57 billion and is ranked as the third richest person in the world.

He founded Zara in 1975 and wanted to name it as ‘Zorba’. Zara stores have brands like Zara, Massimo Dutti, Oysho, Zara Home, Kiddy's Class, Tempe, Stradivarius, Pull and Bear, Bershka.

He is the most low profile billionaire in this list. He prefers hi company’s canteen for coffee and lunch. Most of the times, he is found without a tie and in the simplest dress code.

4. Warren Buffet

Net Worth: $53 billion

Warren Buffet is better known as the king of the stock market and the most remarkable investor of the twentieth century. He is the Chairman and the CEO of Berkshire Hathaway. With a net worth of $53 billion, Buffet comes fourth in this list.

Buffet started his business carrier by selling chewing gums, Coca-Cola and newspapers. He entered into stock market at the age of 11 and when he was 15, he and one of his friends owned several pinball machines in different barber shops.

5. Larry Ellison

Net Worth: $43 billion

The founder of Oracle, Larry Ellison has been placed in the fifth position in this list. His net worth is $43 billion.

Ellison is also making his mark into real estates. He had recently bought a major portion of Hawaiian island. From October 2012 to January, he invested $55 million in real estates.

He is the current CEO of Oracle and holds more than 20 percent shares of Oracle.

6. Charles Koch

Net Worth: $34 billion

Charles Koch, the co-owner and the CEO of Koch Industries is the sixth richest man in the world. Forbes estimated his wealth to be $34 billion in this year.  In 2011, his net worth was $25 billion.

He and his brother got the business from their father. During those days, Koch Industries was mainly into oil refining. Later, they extended their business to fields like  commodity trading and services, consumer products, Lycra fiber, Dixie paper products, process and pollution control equipments and technologies, etc

7. David Koch

Net Worth: $ 34 billion

Just after his elder brother, David Koch holds the seventh position of the rich list with a net worth of $34 billion. In 2012, David Koch was the fourth richest person in America.

He is the co-owner and the Executive Vice President of the Koch Industries. He is a political activist, chemical engineer and also a great supporter of arts. He made a donation of $100 million for the renovation of the ‘New York State Theater’ at Lincoln Center.

8. Li Ka-Shing

Net Worth: $31 billion

Li Ka-Shing is the richest man in Asia and the proud Chairman of the Hutchison Whampoa  (HWL) and Cheung Kong Holdings. He is the most powerful man in Asia and is also known as the ‘Superman’ in Honk Kong.

Born in China (13 June 1928), Li left school at the age of 15 and started working for a plastic trading company. He started his own company in 1950 which got listed in the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 1972.

9. Liliane Bettencourt

Net Worth: $30 billion

Liliane Bettencourt is the only woman in the list of ten richest people in the world. With a net worth of $30 billion, she has become the richest women in the world.

L'Oreal, founded by her father is the reason behind their family wealth. She and her other family members holds more than 30 percent of the company’s shares.

She is now 90 and is placed in the ninth rank of Forbes’ list of rich people, 2013.

10. Bernard Arnault

Net Worth: $29 billion

Bernard was the fourth richest person in this list in 2012. This year, his ownership issue and several other issues have forced him down to the tenth place. His net worth is estimated to be $29 billion.

After completing his graduation, Bernard joined his family’s construction business. In 1976, the family converted its construction business and started focusing in real estates. He became the CEO of the company in 1977.

LMVH was formed in 1987 and finding opportunities, Bernard became the holder of more than 25 percent of its shares

Check out : Top 10 Smartphones of 2013 

Check out: Top 10 Most spoken Languages of the world

What do you think? Please leave your comments below. 

Friday, June 14, 2013

Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini: The small brother of Samsung Galaxy S4

Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini
Samsung's smaller Galaxy S4 Mini is lighter on features than the original flagship.

If Samsung's Galaxy S4 is more phone than you think you need, the electronics giant has just offered up the smaller, more midrange -- and surely cheaper -- Galaxy S4 Mini.
Like a decaffeinated beverage, Samsung is hoping to give its lighter smartphone much of the same GS4 taste with just a little less oomph. Although the Mini has stepped-down specs compared to its flagship family, like a lower-resolution screen and an 8-megapixel camera instead of a 13-megapixel shooter, it's no slouch when it comes to the Galaxy S4's core features, like a built-in TV remote control.
As with the Galaxy S3 Mini that came before, this version is aimed more toward the mass market than the high-end sector. Here in the middle, the Mini plays the role of the lower price option compared to the marquee Galaxy S4, without sacrificing too many of the superphone's more defining features.
The CNET crew will first get our hands on the smaller smartphone in London at the June 20 launch event, and we'll have more thoughts to share when we do. Until then, here's what we know about the phone, and how it should stack up against the original Galaxy S4.
Design and build
Samsung's modest Mini is a wee bit shorter, thicker, and wider than the svelte Galaxy S4 but clearly cut from the same cloth. Like the round-shouldered original, the Mini retains its curved perimeter, metallic rim, and rectangular home button, and also comes in black and white versions.
Specifically, the global GS4 Mini stands 124.6 millimeters tall (4.9 inches) by 61.3 millimeters wide (2.4 inches) by 8.9 millimeters thick (0.35-inch) and weighs a lighter 107 grams (3.7 ounces, compared to the GS4's 4.6-ounce weight.) A 3G-only, dual SIM version will weigh a hair more at 108 grams.
The Galaxy S4 Mini has a 4.3-inch Super AMOLED screen. Inside is a 1.7GHz dual-core processor.
The Galaxy S4 Mini has a 4.3-inch Super AMOLED screen. Inside is a 1.7GHz dual-core processor.
(Credit: Samsung)
The phone's screen quality is perhaps the first place you'll really notice the hardware differences between the Galaxy S4 and its little cousin. Don't expect the S4 Mini's 4.3-inch qHD Super AMOLED display to look as sharp at 960x540 pixels as does the Galaxy S4's 1,920x1,080-pixel resolution on its 5-inch screen. For all you pixel-hounds, that's a 441 pixel density on the Galaxy S4 compared with 256ppi for the S4 Mini.
Both Galaxy screens support the same color gamut and OLED display technology, though the Mini won't have the Galaxy S4's ultrasensitive, glove-friendly capabilities.
From the looks of it, the S4 Mini shares most of the S4 family's other physical attributes, including the location and shape of the camera, flash, sensors, buttons, and ports. It seems that the Mini sports the same subtle patterning as the GS4's finish.

OS and features
Importantly, the Galaxy S4 Mini runs Android 4.2.2 Jelly Bean underneath its TouchWiz layer. Custom interfaces like TouchWiz are notorious for stalling Android update efforts, so starting at such a current OS build is crucial for keeping a phone like the GS4 Mini from falling behind the times.
With TouchWiz comes a mountain of software embellishments, like more one-touch system settings in the notifications pull-down and options like Air View, which produces an onscreen cursor when you wag your finger close to the screen.
Samsung hasn't told us exactly which extras will take root in the Mini, but it's safe to assume that it's an almost identical software build as the Galaxy S4. Transporting its signature Galaxy-only abilities across devices is absolutely Samsung's style.
If software enhancements are your thing, the presence of these bonus features is one reason to pick the Mini over any other midtier device: you won't have the most powerful hardware, but you'll still hold onto features like Group Play, and Samsung's built-in apps. (For more on all these, check out this full Samsung Galaxy S4 review.)
I'm most gratified to see the GS4's IR blaster make its way onto the Mini. This little hardware bauble turns your phone into a TV remote control when paired with the WatchOn app. Top phones like the HTC One and LG Optimus G Pro share this soon-to-be living room staple, but the Galaxy S4 Mini will be the first of its class to also bail you out when your TV remote falls behind the couch.
As for connections and communications, Bluetooth 4.0 keeps the Mini current. NFC, which makes content-sharing possible with a tap, will make it onto LTE-enabled versions of the Mini. I'm not sure why Samsung isn't including NFC in non-LTE Mini handsets, but it likely has something to do with cost control for different markets worldwide.
Cameras and video
Although the Galaxy S4 Mini may not deliver quite the rich detail of the S4's 13-megapixel camera, Samsung is still gifting the "decaf" device with an 8-megapixel shooter, which is no resolution to sneeze at, especially the way Samsung typically outfits its camera modules. Expect high-fidelity images and smooth 1080p HD video.
Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini
The Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini's ports and fixtures show up in the same place as on the original S4.
(Credit: Samsung)
The 1.9-megapixel front-facing camera should also pull its weight for casual self-portraits and video chats.
Shutterbugs will also get a nice, large helping of Samsung's photo software, including panorama and HDR modes (that's high-dynamic range), night mode, burst shot, and several others that help pick the best of the bunch.
While the new Sound & Shot mode makes an appearance (that records an audio clip to narrate the still, but plays back only on GS4 phones,) the new dual-shot mode -- which uses both front and rear camera captures in a single picture -- does not.
While it's tough to guess how well the Galaxy S4 Mini will perform all around the world, the specs do tell a promising story. First up, there are up to six bands for global LTE support, plus HSPA+ 42 speeds, and 3G and 2G fail-safes.
LTE-ready builds of the Mini won't come to every market, but if you've got LTE phones where you live, that's the version you should expect to see when and if the handset lands in a store near you. Otherwise, you'll get a 3G version of the phone, and, in some markets, even a dual-SIM device. The double-barrel configuration has its benefits, but don't hold your breath for a dual-SIM Mini to hit every country (sorry, U.S.).
Now what about raw computing power? Unlike the superpowered quad-core or octa-core Galaxy S4, the GS4 Mini will pack a 1.7GHz dual-core processor under its hood. That's completely respectable, depending on the chipset's make and model, and I'll guess that most people won't miss the Galaxy S4's high-octane gaming speeds.
The phone's smaller screen size is one explanation for the Mini's 1,900mAh battery, which should still keep the phone charged during the peak hours of the day. Unsurprisingly, there's a smaller bank of storage on this lighter device -- 8GB, with closer to 5GB for the phone owner's content. However, a microSD slot holds up to 64GB extra.
In terms of RAM, The Galaxy S4 Mini splits the difference between the GS4's 2GB quotient and midrange device's 1GB capacity with 1.5GB RAM.

Which to buy: Galaxy S4 or Galaxy S4 Mini?
Without pricing or availability details from Samsung and its global partners, it's hard to make a value judgment about which is the better deal. (I'll update this Galaxy S4 Mini first take with that information as soon as Samsung loosens its lips.)
From the looks of it, the Galaxy S4 Mini has the ingredients to deliver a very solid smartphone experience at a more affordable price, though the screen quality and battery life could flag compared with the real S4 deal. More serious mobile gamers and camera snobs should stick with the fully loaded Galaxy S4.
That advice also goes for anyone who consumes a large amount of reading and viewing material from their phone screen. The GS4's, while fairly reflective, will still trump the Mini's lower-res display.
Still, if you like the sound of a surely less expensive device that keeps most of its key features, and you don't mind some toned-down specs, hold off for the moment until more information about the Mini pours in.

Samsung Galaxy S4 Review. See Now... 

Saturday, June 8, 2013

Top 10 Honeymoon Destinations for Any Couple

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Whether or not you're a romantic guy, your honeymoon should be the most memorable vacation of your life. Although the possibilities are seemingly endless, if you truly want to have the perfect post-wedding getaway, you should choose your destination wisely. Are you a quiet couple that wishes to spend quality time by the beach or in the hotel room? Or perhaps you're a more adventurous, thrill-seeking duo? Whatever the case, here are 10 destinations that will make your woman want to marry you all over again.
No.10 Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada
This is a definite honeymoon classic. You can even spend your vacation in two different countries by simply crossing the American-Canadian border over the Falls. What is there to do besides watch all that water? Drop by the impressive Niagara Casino to test your luck as newlyweds, or stroll lazily down the streets of the picturesque town of Niagara-on-the-Lake (a mere short drive away from Niagara Falls); its shops, cafés and culture are sure to please.
Special attraction: Take a breathtaking boat ride under the Falls in the Maid of the Mist.
No.9 The Islands of the Bahamas
With so many beautiful islands to choose from, it's hard to go wrong with this location. However, if you want to plan a really romantic getaway, there are even "romance directors" that can help you organize your fantasy honeymoon or wedding (on a beach at sunset, on a party boat where you can dance the night away, etc.).
Special attraction: Nassau/Paradise Island's unique blend of international glamour and tropical ease offers you the freedom to do absolutely everything or absolutely nothing. Choose from sophisticated resorts or empty beaches, vibrant nightlife or world-class watersports.
No.8 Nice, France
The French Riviera, with its subtropical climate and beautiful beaches on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, is the perfect destination for couples that want to relax and soak up some sun. Just be sure to control your wandering eyes because those southern French women are hot!
Special attraction: If you're there in the winter, don't miss the Nice Carnival, which attracts over one-million people each year. The festivities, which go on for two weeks, include parades, rock and techno concerts, fireworks, and other shows.
No.7 The Turks and Caicos Islands
Located 575 miles (a 75-minute flight) southeast of Miami, these breathtaking islands boast the third largest coral reef system in the world (with 1,000 square miles), making them a premier beach, snorkeling and diving destination. You'll be blown away by the 230 miles of pristine sandy white beaches and crystal clear turquoise waters.
Special attraction: From late December through April, a herd of 2,500 humpback whales pass through the shores; divers can listen to an underwater concert of the whales' songs.
No.6 Aspen, Colorado
For the outdoorsy couples out there, this is an excellent destination for winter and summer sports alike. You can go skiing, snowboarding, golfing, fishing, mountain biking, hiking, rafting, and much more. At night, you can either choose to curl up by the fireplace in your lodge or hit the town to experience the Aspen nightlife.
Special attraction: After a tiring day of skiing or hiking, treat yourselves with a visit to the steamy Yampah Spa and Vapor Caves. Approximately an hour drive from Aspen (located in Glenwood Springs), this unique 106-year-old spa offers numerous body treatments like body mud and wraps, and massage.
No.5 Las Vegas, Nevada
If you've always wanted to know what it feels like to run off to Las Vegas to get married like some rebellious rock star, why don't you just plan your honeymoon there? Revel in the glamour of Vegas by visiting the most impressive casinos in the world, catching a show, or renting a cheesy honeymoon suite with a heart-shaped bed and drinking champagne in the Jacuzzi... in Vegas, your imagination is the limit!
Special attraction: Take a romantic gondola ride (complete with serenade) on the canals inside the Venetian hotel.
No.4 Tahiti, French Polynesia
If you really want to feel like you're in paradise, whisk your woman away to tropical Tahiti, also known as "The Island of Love." The awe-inspiring scenery includes high mountain peaks reaching into the clouds, deep green valleys and lush rainforests, waterfalls cascading into cool rivers and streams, as well as mind-blowing beaches.
Special attraction: Feeling adventurous? You could go searching for the legendary Lost Treasure of the Tuamotu, which is said to consist of $1.8 million worth of gold.
No.3 South Africa
Going on a safari is an option for the most adventurous of couples who want to do something truly memorable for their honeymoon. You'll never forget your face-to-face encounters with wild animals.
Special Attraction: Kruger National Park boasts two million hectares of land, making it one of the largest game reserves in the world. Explore it on foot, in a rented Jeep or as part of a larger tour group. If you're looking for animal sightings, stick to the southern section of the park.
No.2 Costa Rica, Central America
There is so much to see in Costa Rica, which is said to be Central America's "special jewel." Visit the Poas Volcano National Park and the La Paz Waterfall Gardens, or take a nature cruise (or go rafting) on the Rio Sarapiqui. If you travel inland to the Tilaran Highlands, stay in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve where you can visit the amazing Butterfly Garden and hike through the exotic rainforests.
Special attraction: When all the sightseeing has worn you out, relax on one of Costa Rica's fantastic beaches, such as Playa Zancudo (the locals claim that it's the best swimming beach) or Pavones (which offers some of the best Pacific surf).
No.1 Hawaii
Hawaii is the ultimate honeymoon destination, with its beautiful beaches and many islands, each of which has its own personality and attractions. Maui has great weather and an active nightlife while Kaua'i is much less commercial with its scenic valleys, clear waterfalls and dramatic coastline. If you can't make up your mind, you can take a cruise that will allow you to visit all the islands.
Special attractions: The active volcanoes and the black sand beaches of "The Big Island" (Hawaii).

Which do you think is best? Leave your comments below.

Learn Spanish - Pronouncing The Spanish Alphabet

Spanish (español/castellano)

Spanish is a Romance language with approximately 417 million speakers, 322 to 358 of whom speak it as a first language while the remainder speak it as a second language. A significant number of people also speak Spanish as a foreign language. Spanish is spoken in Spain and 22 other countries including: Andorra, Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, the USA and Venezuela
Spanish first started to appear in writing in the form of notes and glosses in Latin religious texts, theGlosas Emilianenses, dating from the 11th century. During the 12th century, law codes (Fueros) were being translated into Spanish. Spanish prose flowered during the reign of King Alfonso X the Wise of Castile (1252-84), who in addition to being the king and a poet, also found time to write an encyclopaedia in Spanish called Las Partidas, which contains laws, chronicles, recipes, and rules for hunting, chess and card games. The first Spanish grammar, by Antonio de Nebrija, and the first dictionaries were published during the 15th and 16th centuries.
In Spain this language is generally called español (Spanish) when contrasting it with languages of other countries, such as French and English, but it is called castellano (Castilian, the language of the Castile region) when contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain, such as Galician, Basque, and Catalan.
Some philologists use Castilian only when speaking of the language spoken in Castile during the Middle Ages, stating that it is preferable to use Spanish for its modern form. The subdialect of Spanish spoken in northern parts of modern day Castile is also called Castilian sometimes, and differs from those of other regions of Spain, however the Castilian dialect is conventionally considered in Spain to be the same as standard Spanish.
The name castellano is widely used for the language in Latin America. Some Spanish speakers consider castellano a generic term with no political or ideological links, much as "Spanish" in English.

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Spanish alphabet (alfabeto español)
A aB bC cCh chD dE eF fG gH hI i
J jK kL lLl llM mN nÑ ñO oP pQ q
R rS sT tU uV vW wX xY yZ z
erreeseteuuveuve doble
doble u
doble ve
equisi griega
Ch (che) and Ll (elle) are also considered letters of the Spanish alphabet, however in 1994 the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) decreed that these letters would no longer be treated as separate letters in dictionaries.

Pronunciation of European Spanish

Pronunciation of European Spanish

Pronunciation of Spanish in Latin America

Pronunciation of Spanish in Latin American


  • Vowels are the same as European Spanish.
  • c = [s] before i or e, but [k] elsewhere
  • g = [x] (or [h] in some countries) before i or e, [g] or [ɣ] elsewhere
  • gu = [g] before i or e, but [gw] elsewhere
  • ll = [j] or [] in most places, though the original pronunciation of [ʎ] is still used in some areas. ll = [ʃ] or [ʒ] in Argentina
  • n = [ŋ] before g, e.g. tengo (I have), [n] elsewhere
  • r = [ɾ] between vowels, [r] elsewhere
  • rr = [ɽ] or [l] in Puerto Rico.
  • s = [h] at the ends of words and syllables in Argentina and Chile, e.g. peces = /'peseh/. In the Caribbean it is not pronounced in that position, e.g. peces = /'pesε/
  • x = [s] at the beginning of words, [ks] elsewhere. In words borrowed from Nahuatl, Mayan or other indigenous languages of Mexico, x = [ʃ] or [s].
  • y = [i] at the end of syllables, such as haybuey and muy, [j] as a consonant or semiconsonant. In emphatic speech in Argentina = [ʒ].
  • k and w appear mainly in loan words

Learn German-Pronouncing The German Alphabet

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